History of Ysleta del Sur Pueblo
Travel Down the Mission Trail
Scholars' Bookshelf
Missions Bibliography
Ysleta Bibliography
Roster of El Paso Area Tribal Leaders
Native American Water Use Chronology
Tigua Military History
Early Accounts & Bibliography
Tigua Ethnographical History
Tigua Participation at Texas State Fair
Travel Links & More
Ysleta Land Grant Chronology
Acknowledgments / Resources
Tigua Ethnographical History

Tigua Ethnographical History, A Research Bibliography

With Critical Notes

Copyright Reserved

By Nicholas P. Houser, July 1, 2002

Bandelier, Adolph F.

  1. Index to Final Report of Investigations Among the Indians of the Southwestern United States, Carried on Mainly in the Years from 1880 to 1885, Index prepared by the New Mexico Historical Records Survey Service Division, War Services Section Work Projects Administration, Sponsored by the Historical Society of New Mexico. Albuquerque, New Mexico, the New Mexico Historical Records Survey, June 1942 , 86-pages (Research note: Isleta del Sur, ii, 234,262).

  1. The Southwestern Journals of Adolph F. Bandelier, 1880-1882, edited and annotated by Charles H. Lange and Carroll L. Riley, The University of New Mexico Press (Research note: Bandelier was in the El Paso area in the latter part of March 1888. He was again in the region in August of 1889, this time for about two weeks).

  1. The Southwestern Journals of Adolph F. Bandelier, 1883-1884. Edited & Annotated by Charles H. Lange and Carroll L. Riley, The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Bloom, Lansing B. (edited by)

1938 Bourke on the Southwest, edited by Lansing B. Bloom, In: New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. XIII, No. 2, April 1938, pp. 192-209. *[7 pages]. (For Vol V, Ethnology: pages 192-209).

Burrus, Ernext J., S.J.

  1. The Bandelier Collection in the Vatican Library, Manuscripta (pp. 67-84). This article concerns the text and images accompanying the manuscript in the Vatican Library: History of the Colonization and of the Missions of Sonora, Chihuahua, New Mexico, and Arizona, to the Year 1700. (Part of this study concerns Ysleta del Sur and adjacent pueblos).

El Paso Herald (Newspaper)

  1. “The Indian Dances” (Title) “The Tegua Tribe in El Paso – Their Chiefs and Principal Officers – Musical Instruments, list of Dances, etc.” (Subtitle). El Paso Herald Post, December 12, 1890, Page 1, Col. 7 (Research note: This is not an enthnological account, but is an important newspaper description of the tribe. Photocopy in file. “The Chief Officers of the Tegua band now in the city are: Grand chief, Cresencío Casica [Crensencio Marquez); war chief, Mariano Colminero [Colmenero]; governor, Jose Duran (called El Largo, the Long); lieutenant governor, Benigno Talles [Telles]; field marshall, Sosteno [Sostenos] Gonzales. There are thirty-odd of the band now in the city and participating in the dances, including 16 or 18 squaws, some of whom are young and quite comely. There are but few of their dances, however, in which the squaws participate. Last night both the Indians and the spectators had an uproarious time over the awkward antics of a few young white gentlemen who undertook to go through the mazes of the cuna, or cradle dance – each one, of course, picking out the handsomest young squaw he could find for a partner. The programme [sic] includes the olla, or whirlpool dance; la cuna, or cradle dance; mazorca de maiz fresca, or green corn dance; tupe, or scalp, otherwise called the caballera, or long hair dance; tortuga, or tortoise dance; porfia, or contrary dance (best of all), and the baile grande, or grand dance”).

1892 “Marshal Paul Fricke” (Title). “Shoots Capt. Bourke in Court Room at San Antonio” (El Paso Herald, November 19, 1892, page 4, col. 4 (photocopy in research file).

1901 "The Tigua Indians" (main title followed by:) "Scientist Studying the Tribe at Ysleta" "His Discoveries Will Throw Considerable Light on the Origin of the Ancient Races. Resurrecting Dead Languages". El Paso Herald, November 5, 1901, Page 5 (Research note: photocopy in file). "Dr. and Mrs. Fewkes have just returned from Ysleta, this county, where they had spent ten days while Dr. Fewkes was making some investigations regarding the history and language of the Indians located at that place, ascertaining as far as possible what aboriginal customs and language of these Indians are still used by them."

"My investigations among the Indians at Ysleta are not yet complete, said Dr. Fewkes, and I shall return to that place in a few days to continue my studies of the Indians there and in that vicinity. I was there only ten days. My visit to Ysleta is only incidental to my investigations among the Indians of the neighborhood of Albuquerque, New Mexico. While among the Indians of Isleta and Socorro in New Mexico I learned that there were some located near El Paso who were descendants of some who had left the New Mexico settlements years ago." (page 1)

"At Ysleta I found about twenty-five Indians who carry on conversations in their original tongue, and about twenty-five more who can understand it but can not converse in it. These are only the oldest of the inhabitants, the children speaking Spanish exclusively."

"I made a vocabulary of words of the original language of the Tiguans. Of course this is not complete for I have not had time yet, but is sufficient to compare with those I have from the language used by the Indians of Isleta, N.M., and determine any little differences that may exist." (page 1)

"There used to be a tribe living at this Socorro [Texas], but it is extinct with the exception of two or three old ones. This tribe spoke a language called Piros, which is the same as that spoken by the Indians at Socorro, New Mexico. The Piros tribe is distinct from the Tiguans. I understand that quite a number of the old ones who speak the Piros language are living just across the river from Socorro, this county, at a place called Senecu, where there once existed quite a pueblo of the Piros Indians. I have not been there yet, but I intend to visit that place when I go down to Ysleta and Socorro again." (page 1)

[Fewkes said he has a map made in 1742 which shows where the Indian pueblos existed at that time]

"I found no ruins here at all. The homes of the Indians in this county were probably built entirely of adobe and the rains of many years have melted them down."

[Note: reference to potter as Fewkes believes Tiguas were not as good at pottery as northern pueblos]

"It has not been more than forty years since the Indians of this county were often attacked by roving bands of Apaches, Kiowas and other tribes and their crops destroyed and people killed. Every night the peaceable Indians would collect their wives and children in the old church, which stands, and they would stand on guard outside while, their families slept. They remembered the depredations of the roving Indians and when the white men came into this section they joined them in driving out the red enemy."

[Note: referenced to Pueblo Rebellions by Fewkes:] "That was about the year 1680 and the first documentary history we have in regard to the old church at Ysleta is dated 1692."

"The Indians themselves have no traditions to this section, but they known that they did come from Ysleta and Socorro, New Mexico."

"I can't give much time to studying these Indians this year, as I must be back in Washington this month, but I expect to come again and learn more about these interesting Indians."

"I understand that I am the first man in the employ of the government to visit the Indians of this county to make researches." [Tigua] (page 1) El Paso Public Library, Reel 33 (includes Lone Star and other newspapers).

  1. Remnants of Prehistoric Race Reside near El Paso, Ysleta and Cenecu [Senecú] Indians are Said to Be Direct Descendants of the Pueblos of La Gran Quivera and Contiguous Villages, Whose Ancestral Homes Were Destroyed Either by the Apaches or by Valcanic Ashes and Lava” (Title). Charles Lummis is referred to about the Ysleta del Sur Indians. .

El Paso Times (Newspaper)

  1. Prof. A.Bandelier of Santa Fe, New Mexico is here in the territories of old Indian habitations in this vicinity. El Paso Times, April 5, 1888:2, 6 lines.

Fewkes, J.W. (See: Diamond, Tom, Fewkes Diary 1901, in: Ysleta del Sur Pueblo Archives, Jan. 2000, Vol. 3, pages 189-299)

  1. “Old Ruins in The Southwest, Origin of the Aztecs” (Title), “Studied by Noted Government Ethnologist, Dr. J. Walker [sic] Fewkes” (Subtitle), El Paso Herald, Dec. 14, 1901, Page 10. Cols. 1-3 (Photocopy in File, References to Tigua of Ysleta, Piros, Mansos and Sumas).

  1. J. Walter Fewkes, Diary, Ms. No. 4408; 39, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C. (Research notes: The following contains some notes from the diary: Ysleta War Chief has four assistants. Nov. 4, 1901. “Went to El Paso in the morning – saw the copy of a document dated 1692 founding the church at Ysleta, but failed to get a copy - Padre Cordova thinks the Franciscan took all the documents to Corpus Cristi in Texas and there are no old documents in El Paso except this copy – I think the government of Ysleta and Sinecu practically the same: that a kind of Mexican form. Padre Cordova has practically no papers of Ysleta Church but has a copy of the document mentioned on the back of the photograph. – There is a Piro Pueblo in Mexico called Ahotitlan . One man said four tongues spoken near El Paso in old times – (1) Manso – old Juarez (2) San Lorenzo – Sumas (3) Piros – Senecú, Socorro, (4) Tiwa – Ysleta, Zaragosa. The language of the Mansos and Sumas is lost. No one speaks Piro – although they know a few words. Senecu – patron said – San Antonio. Fewkes went to Senecu. Old man said Abo was former home of the Piros – and a pueblo St. Paul in Mexico. 50 Piros. Took many photographs in Senecu – church is very old. Many santos. An Isidro with oxen. Many old paintings. Statute of San Antonio. Where is San Ygnacio de loyola – Mexican in Zargosa del Pilar. Old Tiwa man said Piros spoke another pueblo tongue and that they are Tarahumara stock. “He known about Taos and the Sumas which he thinks were his ancestors (Sumas). Majority of Tiwa houses in front of church. 35 pure Indians speak. About 60 who understand, but don’t speak Tiwa. Tlu kla – sacred meal. Las Cruces – Felipe Gonzales. Pociano Olguin showed me his discharge paper. Padre Juan Cordova – padre at Ysleta Church. “Tiwa” [means] all Indios. 1 in 20 in this pueblo speak English..”and I have not yet seen a single American living here”. Rained all day! No old santos in Ysleta Church – they were sold several years ago. The cruicfix [is] old that is about all. Cain – madre sanctisima Tiponi is called ki-ka-a-we-e Central fire – boys not admitted tusla, corn husk cigarettes. When go hunting ask permission from cacique. Governor directs all dances. One year after death of cacique no dances, no races. Fewkes mentions that San Miguel was patron saint of Senecu. Fewkes has Sumas in San Lorenzo. Socorro – old house of Jose Gonales [Gonzáles] (Indio). Several ollas here which are Indian. Mr. Neff of el Paso, Oct. 19, 1901. Dr. C.l. Knoblauch will aid visitors, he lives in Ysleta.

1902 The Pueblo Settlements Near El Paso, by J. Walter Fewkes, In: American Anthropologist, New Series, Jan-March, 1902, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 57-75 (Photocopy & Original in File).

Kaemlein, Wilma R.

  1. An Inventory of Southwestern American Indian Specimens in European Museums, Arizona State Museum, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Items acquired by Dr. H.F.C. Ten Kate Jr., See pages 132-144, Rijsmuseum voor Volkenkunde,Leiden: includes Tigua Ysleta del Sur material cultural such as shield, etc).

Mooney, James

  1. Notebook of James Mooney, 1894-95 & 1897, Field Trip to El Paso area (Senecú etc), In: Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (Photocopies of the notebook in file). Research note: The Mooney Notebook is very difficult to read. Obtain copy of 19th Annual Report, BAE, for the year 1897-98, p. xvi, referring to Mooney’s trip this area in December 1897. Houser has a handwritten copy of the BAE Report in file and should obtain a photocopy from the original publication. A post card, addressed to James Mooney, El Pao, Texas; dated El Paso, Texas, Dec. 11, 1897, “I have not found the number of the Mesenger [sic] in which appeared an article of Rev. O’Connell on the Ysleta Indians. In the December Messenger 1896, page 972 you will find something about the Tesque Indians. [Signature at bottom of this card is difficult to decipher may be Jm. Cordonaft, 707 N. Oregon Street]. The photocopies from the Smithsonian contain also copies of Kiowa vocabulary by John R. Bartlett with outline of 180 terms in handwriting of George Gibbs; with “Sinecu” and “Isleta” [del Sur] are marked, “D7-97” and “D-15”, as are corresponding notes in Mooney’s notebook…” The notebook also includes notes on the Suma Indians.

1898 Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians, by James Mooney, pages 301-305, Forked-stick-sprouting sun dance – Expeditions against El Paso and the Saux – Story of the A poto”, Summer 1857, (Note: actual date of the battle at Hueco Tanks was 1839). In: Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, In Two Parts – Part I, Washington, Government Printing Office (Research note: photocopy in file.

Powell, John W.

  1. Nineteenth Annual Report, 1897098, Washington, D.C. Part I, Page xvi (Research note: Photocopy in file. “Having completed his investigations among the tribes of New Mexico in the early part of December, Mr. Mooney devoted attention to the remnants of the Piro, Tiwa, Suma, and Manso tribes of the Rio Grande below El Paso, in both Texas and Chihuahua. These Indians, now practically Mexicanized, are the descendants of a large number of natives who were taken by Governor Otermín on his retreat from Santa Fe to El Paso, and settled at their present location during the Pueblo rebellion in 1680. He obtained valuable information in regard to the former status of these people and conducted also some linguistic researches, to which reference will later be made”).

Ten Kate, H.F.C. Jr., Dr.

1885 Reizen en Onderzoekingen in Noord-Amerika, Leiden (Letter dated August 23, 1967 to Dr. Edward Dozier, University of Arizona, Tucson, from Ted J. Brasser, Rijksmuseum Voor volkenkunde, Leiden containing translation from Ten Kate’s book. Note: translation in Houser research files).